This page is part of the documentation for the rEFInd boot manager. If a Web search has brought you here, you may want to start at the main page. Increase disk space by expanding the hard disk and then using GParted to extend the size of the Linux native partition. How to install GUI gnome on redhat linux 7 server.
GNU GRUB Manual 2. GNU GRUB Manual 2. Table of Contents. GNU GRUB manual. This is the documentation of GNU GRUB, the GRand Unified Bootloader. GRUB is designed to.
Thus you can load the kernel. Using the command- line interface, you type the drive. In the menu. interface, you just select an OS using the arrow keys.
The menu is. based on a configuration file which you prepare beforehand. Configuration). While in the menu, you can switch to the. You can even edit menu entries. He soon realized that it would be a lot easier.
Free. BSD boot loader, and so GRUB was born. In. 1. 99. 9, Gordon Matzigkeit and Yoshinori K. Okuji adopted GRUB as an. GNU package, and opened its development by making the latest.
CVS. See Obtaining and Building GRUB, for more information. Okuji started work on PUPA (Preliminary Universal Programming. Architecture for GNU GRUB), aiming to rewrite the core of GRUB to make it. Proprietary kernels (such as DOS, Windows NT, and OS/2) are. Only kernels loaded at 1 megabyte.
Any attempt to load below that. Symbol. tables are also loaded. Chain- loading of other boot loaders is also.
You can also load another configuration file dynamically and. GRUB image file. The list of. Commands) are a superset of those supported on the. An example configuration file is provided in. Configuration. There is no fixed limit on the number of boot. If no configuration file is present, GRUB drops to.
Editing commands closely resembles the Bash. Command Line Editing in Bash Features), with TAB- completion of commands.
The currently supported filesystem types are Amiga. Fast File. System (AFFS), Athe.
OS fs, Be. FS. Btr. FS (including raid. Linux ext. 2/ext. DOS FAT1. 2/FAT1. FAT3. 2, ex. FAT, HFS.
HFS+, ISO9. 66. 0 (including Joliet, Rock- ridge and multi- chunk files). JFS, Minix fs (versions 1, 2 and 3), nilfs. NTFS (including compression), Reiser. FS, ROMFS. Amiga Smart File.
System (SFS), Squash. UDF. BSD UFS/UFS2, XFS, and ZFS (including lzjb, gzip.
AES- CCM and AES- GCM). This function is both automatic and transparent to the user. This greatly reduces a file size and loading time, a. It is conceivable that some kernel modules should be loaded in a. A drive installed and running with one. GRUB’s configuration.
It uses an advanced BIOS query technique for finding all. As described on the Multiboot Specification (see Motivation in The Multiboot. Specification), not all kernels make use of this information, but GRUB. GRUB can’t universally solve this problem, as there is no. However, several newer machines. Logical Block Address (LBA) mode.
GRUB. automatically detects if LBA mode is available and uses it if. In LBA mode, GRUB can access the entire disk. You can load OS images from a network by using the TFTP. Only serial. terminal support is implemented at the moment. I used to. refer to the above systems as either “LILO”5 or “GRUB”. The number . This expression means that GRUB will use the whole floppy.
The first integer. The partition numbers are.
GRUB). This expression means the second partition of the. In this case, GRUB uses one partition of the.
Note that the partition numbers for extended partitions are. To help you find out. GRUB command- line. Command- line interface) options have argument. This means that, for example, you only need to type. TAB, and GRUB will display the list of drives.
So it should be quite easy to determine the. Normally. any IDE drive number is less than any SCSI drive number, although that. IDE and SCSI. drives in your BIOS.
Again, consider an. This specifies the file named . Note that the argument. Now read the next chapter, to find out how to. GRUB on your drive. For volumes. E. g.
For volumes it’s typically. Volume. You can do this either. OS. Hereafter, the directory where GRUB images are.
You only need to specify one. The. argument has to be either a device file (like . If you want GRUB to put images under a directory.
The typical usage is that you create a GRUB. Here is an example. Some BIOSes have a bug of exposing the first partition of a USB drive as a. USB drive as a hard disk (they call it. USB- FDD” boot). In such cases, you need to install like this. This install doesn’t conflict with standard install as long as they are in. Therefore. you may run those commands directly to install GRUB, without using.
Don’t do that, however, unless you are very familiar. GRUB. Installing a boot loader on a running OS may be. This means that you can use the whole CD- ROM. GRUB and you don’t have to make a floppy or hard disk image file.
The. core. img used for this should be built with at least the. Your bootable CD- ROM will. GRUB modules. To do this, first. This makes it easier to. USB mass. storage devices. One of the two is to load an.
Generally. speaking, the former is more desirable, because you don’t need to. GRUB is flexible enough to. However. the latter is sometimes required, since GRUB doesn’t support all the. If you want to boot other operating systems, you. Chain- loading). See DOS/Windows, for more. This usually. involves running a userspace program running before the real root.
This is achieved by GRUB loading a specially made. This is achieved. Note that for knetbsd the image must be put.
In. kopenbsd payload this is disabled by default. Aditionally behaviour of. Several distributors provide. Consult your kernel and distribution manual for. Other loaders like appleloader, chainloader (BIOS, EFI, coreboot).
Please consider alternative boot methods like copying all files. Consult your OS documentation for. Some caveats on OS- specific issues. Here, we describe some caveats on several operating systems. But do not forget that you have to specify a. Some BIOS services like APM.
EDD aren’t available with this protocol. In this case you need to use. If you use an initrd, execute the command initrd (see initrd). If you used linux. Finally, run the command boot (see boot). To let GRUB know. See uppermem, for more information.
However, their boot loaders have some critical. To overcome. the problems, GRUB provides you with two helper functions.
The workaround used in GRUB is the. This performs a virtual swap between your first and second hard. If that OS uses a special driver for the.
Certainly you should avoid doing. Use the partition. If GRUB unhides a DOS (or Windows). DOS (or Windows) will detect the partition. Thus, if you have. DOS (or Windows) on the first and the second partition of the.
While this still. If you set this to . Connect the output. GRUB is running) to line- in of receiving system. For efi chainloaders it’s < UUID> @< EFI FILE>. For entries returned. If this option is set to .
Changing this option will require. While fixing it is scheduled for the. GRUB syntax and do it. A possible configuration is detailed here, feel free to adjust to your. Some of the. following entries show how to load OS installer images from this same partition.
Also disable os- prober. GRUB. You can also use UUIDs with –fs- uuid UUID instead of –label LABEL. You could also use direct root=hd. X but this is not recommended due to device name instability. Example is available in docs/example.
Additionally special. TIMEOUT. Change the . Left for backward compatibility. Currently unused. Left for backward compatibility. Currently unused.
Left for backward compatibility. Specifies the image to use as the background. Options are. “stretch“, “crop“, “padding“, “fitwidth“, “fitheight“.
Otherwise it is proportional. Default is “stretch“. Specifies the horizontal alignment of the *desktop- image* if.
Options are. “left“, “center“, “right“. Default is “center“. Specifies the vertical alignment of the *desktop- image* if. Options are. “top“, “center“, “bottom“. Default is “center“. Specifies the color for the background if *desktop- image* is not. Specifies the file name pattern for the styled box slices used for the.
If “id“ is set to “. This box will be used to paint just the highlighted region.
And the center slice of the highlight box. That way we can make a progress bar with. Default is “false“. The font to use for progress bar. The text to display on the progress bar. Default is “false“.
And the center slice of the scrollbar. That way we can make a scrollbar with. Default is “false“. Possible values are “west“, “center“, “east“ (default). Note that. this should be changed both in the prefix and in any references to the. In the following description.
This is alias for the. To connect one computer with another via a serial line. In addition, a terminal emulator is also required, such as. Refer to a manual of your operating system, for more. The serial unit 0 is usually called . This. command accepts many other options, so please refer to serial.
In the case above, the terminal will be a. In this case, a terminal in which. GRUB terminal. In the example above. This is true for most terminal. VT1. 00- compatible or.
VT1. 00 escape sequences. If you specify this option then. GRUB provides you with an alternative menu interface, because the normal. Linux nvram implementation cuts first 1.
CMOS. So the real byte address in CMOS is 7. So complete address is 8. GRUB image files. GRUB consists of several images: a variety of bootstrap images for starting. GRUB in various ways, a kernel image, and a set of modules which are. On most platforms it’s just 3 or 4. M since ieee. 12.
Because of BIOS limitations, GRUB cannot distinguish. IDE, ESDI, SCSI, or others. You must know yourself which BIOS.
OS device. Normally, that will be clear if. BIOS and EFI disks use either . Specifying third and later component you can access. Supported protocols. If server is omitted, value of.
See Making a GRUB bootable CD- ROM, for details. One. example is . This means the file. If you omit the device name in an absolute file name, GRUB uses. GRUB’s root device implicitly.
So if you set the root device to. The syntax is. . If you omit an offset, then GRUB assumes. So (hd. 0,2)+1 is the same as +1 when the root. If one. is found, then the full menu interface is activated using whatever. If you choose the command- line menu. GRUB drops to. the command- line interface.
Each command is. immediately executed after it is entered.