Usage under Windows - - IM v. Examples. Index Introduction Using Cygwin Using the DOS Shell and Batch Files Visual Basic Script (VBS) Further Information. Most of the commands in IM Examples were written specifically with LINUX and. UNIX shell scripting in mind, as these systems are designed with batch.
However, more and more users of. Image. Magick want to use it from the Windows Environment. This section provides. IM in that environment and, more.
What are Internal Consistency Evaluators (ICEs)? When I was visiting a customer a while ago, I ran into a software packager wearing a funny t-shirt. I do not remember. Note how because we are assigning the value of the comprehensions to a variable in the example above, CoffeeScript is collecting the result of each iteration into an. The requirement for this implementation is as below – The GridView should show down arrow on each column, which can be decided by the programmer.
UNIX shell command (as used in the rest of the IM. Examples) into its Windows DOS equivalent.
What you see here is his work, and IM users are indebted to. Well, there are a lot of readily. Adobe Photoshop, Corel's Paint. Shop Pro, Irfan. View (http: //www.
GIMP (http: //www. So why should you bother to perform image. IM's command line programs and scripts? Tasks such as: Bulk format conversion. This is offered by quite a lot of Windows programs, such as Irfan.
View. The same holds if you convert the document into a PDF via. PDF printer driver such as Free. PDF. For instance, Irfan. View's batch processing.
It. also offers to change the gamma value, but the histogram of the photograph. Thus. standard workflow steps on images can be completely automised (and really. There are probably more elegant approaches to some of. The points I want to make are. Windows script programming with. IM's command line tools.
The scripts are intended. For complex operations.
For a series of simple commands, this will most. DOS batch file, executed in the Windows Command Shell. This. approach, however, has its shortcomings, as the batch file command set is. UNIX command shells. Cygwin. A bash- like command shell (http: //www. When using this shell, the IM examples. UNIX style command line shell.
It is present on. Windows computer and WSH scripts are much more powerful. DOS batch files. The Windows Script Host offers several. VBScript (Visual Basic Script) and JScript. Java Script) being the most common. The IM command line tools can be. DOS shell commands Run or.
Exec of the Shell object. The Windows Powershell. The much more powerful successor of the ancient DOS shell, based on the. NET 2. 0 technology. It can be downloaded for Windows XP and Vista. Microsoft's website.
You surely won't like to start a DOS command. To avoid such cumbersome ways of proceeding, you can basically. Drag & Drop or Send. To. When using Drag & Drop, you place the DOS batch file or the. VBScript (or whatever) in a location that is easily accessible, like the.
You then. select the files to be processed in the Windows Explorer and just drop them. The filenames will be handed over to the script as the. The Send. To folder is named Send. To. Its. location seems to move with each new Windows version. A bullet- proof way to. So if you invoke an IM. As. all files are passed with fully qualified filenames (i.
This errors cannot be properly handled by. The solution under Windows XP is usually to place the files in. The Convert issue.
IM's Windows installation routine adds IM's program directory to the search. IM's command line tools directly from the command.
However, the names of IM's command line. Convert, Identify, Compare ..) which. But there are also other programs. Current. versions of IM's Windows setup program however place IM's program directory at. IM's command line tool is usually found first. However, other utilities. Deplhi's report converter) ran into the same problem.
That is, storing its. So every batch file should start with. SETLOCAL Enable. Delayed. Expansion. SET IMCONV=. SETLOCAL will limit the definition of new environment. IMCONV) to the scope of the batch file.
There are more sophisticated and bullet- proof ways to find out about. IM's installation folder, which will be treated in Editing, Debugging and Runtime Error Testing. The. equivalent VB- Script code would be something like.
Set wsh = WScript. Create. Object(. For a good.
Ron Savage: MS Windows and convert. Character Encoding. Image. Magick encodes strings in Unicode, more precisely in UTF- 8. This generates problems.
When using non- ASCII charcters, things will go wrong in the easy. You can however. read and UTF- 8 coded string from a textfile. And switching the codepage to and fro between, say.
West European Latin) and 6. Please note that dumping the output to. Image. Magick to.
Windows. backslash (. In a practical DOS batch file, the. FOR loop. A practical example is. See Batch processing a (sub- )directory. Installing Image.
Magick under Windows. Image. Magick is under constant development, new versions are released roughly. It is strongly recommended to use an up- to- date version of. IM, especially when IM doesn't seem to perform a job quite as you expect it to.
In most cases, the installation of the current version will solve the. The setup program of the current binary release can be found at http: //www. By default, the setup program suggest to extend the PATH environment. IM is installed for the first time (i. If you forget to de- install. Image. Magick. versions with their corresponding PATH extensions. See section . If you do deal with several installed.
IM, the most important key is HKEY Local. Machine\Software\Image.
Magick\Current, where you can also find the path. IM's binarys, called Bin. Path. You can query this registry entry. PATH environment variable. See section . The option is not checked by default and the installation. COM+ object is no prerequisite to use IM in a VBScript, as will. Anyway, you should not rely on the COM+ object to.
It is only needed if you want to. Postscript or PDF files. The operation. convert - size 1. This was of proceeding. It is especially useful if.
For example: if you want to redirect. Compare to a text file, you would have to write. PSNR 1. png 2. png dif. However the quick- and- dirty approach is a Google search. If you want to perform a montage of several images and want to. Google search on. Just keep in mind that.
UNIX / LINUX environment. Windows. Becoming. Auxiliary programs and alternatives. Yes, it's true. But you. Using Cygwin. As has been said above, Image.
Magick was designed with UNIX and Linux in mind. Bash shell on your Windows.
IM scripts which have already been written for. Fred Weinhaus' scripts.
Cygwin is – as its developers put it. I have tested a few of. Fred Weinhaus' bash scripts under Cygwin's Bash shell and found them to be. When you start this. After you have chosen one of.
The standard selection seems reasonable to me, so you might just. The installation routine will then download the packages needed and. Cygwin on your computer. The basic commands are: You change the current directory with CD command, more or.
DOS. However, the backslash (. As such CD w: will switch to drive w: Unlike in.
Unix environment, pathnames are case- insensitive. For example. /cygdrive/w/test. Cywin reads the Windows PATH environment variable and sets its own PATH. You can check that by typing echo $PATH into the. Bash shell. Note: Unlike under Windows, the names of environment variables. PATH. Unlike under Windows, the current directory in not in the search.
Alturnativally you can append that script directory explicitly to the. PATH=$PATH: /cygdrive/w/scripts. Using the DOS Shell and Batch Files. Converting Scripts: UNIX Shell to Window DOS.
When invoking IM commands directly from the DOS command shell (using. IM's Example. site (if they don't stem from this section), as most examples provided (in. UNIX or LINUX command.
You can use. single quotes within a DOS double quoted argument as these are passed to. IM for handling, and not processed by the script. For DOS the next line will also need to start with a. As such the practice is not recommended. All reserved shell characters which are not in double quotes must be.
These. reserved shell characters are: '& ', '. For example. . In a DOS batch file, single percent signs (as they. Keep in mind that Windows filenames can include space characters. Spaces. can also be used under UNIX but not so common. This quoting is not needed under DOS, but. It is your choice which. This is just good programming practice.
Under UNIX. you would instead need to add a special command or option to print. Like IM is. a command- driven image manipulator, SED is a command- driven editor. It takes the filename of the. Linux shell script as the only command line parameter and generates a batch. It will NOT turn sophisticated Linux shell. Fred Weinhaus' website). Using these techniques, the filename handed to the.
DOS batch file will be a fully qualified filename, i. You can test this by dropping a file onto the. Due to the PAUSE statement, the DOS box will stay open until the. Try the above with. Practically speeaking, I have.
When working with batch. UNC names: You may get your batch working. Let us perform a simple conversion from any other format to JPEG. The. most basic code would be. This will produce a JPEG file (with standard quality and resolution) in the. The above code. works on any filename, whether it contains spaces or not.
If you want to get. Consequently, we have. If you however place.
FOR %%a in (*. jpg) DO convert %%a - resize 5. In this case, we should make the file's directory. CD . We therefore wrote CD. In case of the CD command, we. We could however as well have written.
MD . Please note. For loop variable. Note two: The final backslash is part of the pathname. You can however group a series of DOS commands in parantheses. First it blurs the original image and negates it.
Then it superposes the original image over. If you need such behaviour, you have to call another batch file by the. FOR %%a in (*. jpg) DO CALL .
The. command line parameter 0 (. The FOR statement. In the present case, the code in the batch file. This does not make any difference in this. Batch processing a (sub- )directory tree. There are several techniques to process all files in a (sub- )directory tree.
In order to convert all TIFF. JPEG you thus simply type.
FOR /R %%a IN (*. DO imconv . This offers an easy.
Windows Explorer, but without the (time- consuming) need to. The index prints will be. JPEG files named IDX. First we establish the loop. DEL IDX. In the second.
Using Software Restriction Policies to Protect Against Unauthorized Software. Published: January 0.
This important feature provides administrators with a policy- driven mechanism for identifying software programs running on computers in a domain, and controls the ability of those programs to execute. Software restriction policies can improve system integrity and manageability—which ultimately lowers the cost of owning a computer. On This Page. Introduction. Software Restriction Policies—An Overview.
Software Restriction Policy Architecture. Software Restriction Policy Options. Software Restriction Policy Design. Step- by- Step Guide for Designing a Software Restriction Policy. Step- by- Step Guide for Creating Additional Rules.
Commonly Overlooked Rules. Scenarios. Deployment Considerations.
Troubleshooting Software Restriction Policies. Appendix. Summary.
Related Links. Introduction. Software restriction policies are a part of Microsoft's security and management strategy to assist enterprises in increasing the reliability, integrity, and manageability of their computers. Software restriction policies are one of many new management features in Windows XP and Windows Server 2. This article provides an in- depth look at how software restriction policies can be used to: Fight viruses. Regulate which Active. X controls can be downloaded. Run only digitally signed scripts.
Enforce that only approved software is installed on system computers. Lockdown a machine. Expanded Management Capabilities. Windows 2. 00. 0 brought significant management capabilities to the Windows platform. In Windows 2. 00.
Application settings allowed you to customize an application once through Group Policy, and then distribute that customization to all domain users who required it. The Software Installation snap- in provided a means to centrally manage software distribution in your organization. When the user selected an application from the Start menu for the first time, it set up automatically, and then opened. You could also publish applications to groups of users, making the application available for users to install.
Security settings defined a security configuration within a Group Policy Object (GPO). Security configuration consisted of settings for: account policies, local policies, event log, registry, file system, public key policies, and other policies. Windows XP and Windows Server 2. Windows 2. 00. 0 by adding the following features: Better diagnostic and planning information through Resultant Set of Policies (RSOP). For more information, see the article Windows 2.
Group Policy. Ability to use Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) filtering. In Windows 2. 00. Active Directory. In Windows XP you can use WMI information to apply group policies to, for example, machines with a certain build or service pack level of Windows. Software restriction policies integrate with the operating system and common scripting runtimes to control the running of software at execution.
In Windows 2. 00. Start menu or hiding the Run command. New software restriction policies go beyond this by simply removing the common access points for software.
Software Restriction Policies—An Overview. This section discusses the behavior of hostile code and problems associated with unknown code.
Hostile Code Has More Ways to Get In. With the increased use of networks and the Internet in daily business computing, the potential for encountering hostile code is higher than ever before. People collaborate in more sophisticated ways by using e- mail, instant messaging, and peer- to- peer applications.
As these collaboration opportunities increase, so does the risk of viruses, worms, and other hostile code invading your systems. Remember: e- mail and instant messaging can transport unsolicited hostile code. Hostile code can take many forms. It can range from native Windows executables (. Viruses and worms often use social engineering to trick users into activating them. With the sheer number and variety of forms that code can take, it can be difficult for users to know what is safe to run and what is not. When activated, hostile code can damage content on a hard disk, flood a network with a denial- of- service attack, send confidential information out to the Internet, or compromise the security of a machine.
The Problem with Unknown Code. Hostile code is not the only threat—many non- malicious software applications also cause problems. Any software not known and supported by an organization can conflict with other applications or change crucial configuration information. Software restriction policies were designed to help organizations control not just hostile code, but any unknown code—malicious or otherwise. Responding to Unknown Code.
Software restriction policies help a business respond to unknown code by: Providing a way to define a list of what is trusted code versus what is not. Providing a flexible, policy- based approach for regulating scripts, executables, and Active. X controls. Enforcing the policy automatically. Software Restriction Policy Architecture. Figure 1 below shows the three components of a software restriction policy: An administrator creates the policy by using the Group Policy Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap- in for a particular Active Directory container site, domain, or organizational unit. The policy is downloaded and applied to a machine. User policies apply the next time a user logs on.
Machine policies apply when a machine starts up. When a user starts a program or script, the operating system or scripting host checks the policy and enforces it. Unrestricted or Disallowed. A software restriction policy is created using the MMC Group Policy snap- in. A policy consists of a default rule about whether programs are allowed to run, and exceptions to that rule.
The default rule can be set to Unrestricted or Disallowed—essentially run or don't run. Setting the default rule to Unrestricted allows an administrator to define exceptions; for example, the set of programs that are not allowed to run.
A more secure approach is to set the default rule to Disallowed and specify only the programs that are known and trusted to run. Default Security Level. There are two ways to use software restriction policies: If an administrator knows all of the software that should run, then a software restriction policy can be applied to control execution to only this list of trusted applications.
If all the applications that users might run are not known, then administrators can step in and disallow undesired applications or file types as needed. Four Rules Identify Software. The purpose of a rule is to identify one or more software applications, and specify whether or not they are allowed to run. Creating rules largely consists of identifying software that is an exception to the default rule. Each rule can include descriptive text to help communicate why the rule was created.
A software restriction policy supports the following four ways to identify software: Hash—A cryptographic fingerprint of the file. Certificate—A software publisher certificate used to digitally sign a file. Path—The local or universal naming convention (UNC) path of where the file is stored. Zone—Internet Zone.
Hash Rules. A hash rule is a cryptographic fingerprint that uniquely identifies a file regardless of where it is accessed or what it is named. An administrator may not want users to run a particular version of a program. This may be the case if the program has security or privacy bugs, or compromises system stability. With a hash rule, software can be renamed or moved into another location on a disk, but it will still match the hash rule because the rule is based on a cryptographic calculation involving file contents. A hash rule consists of three pieces of data, separated by colons: MD5 or SHA- 1 hash value. File length. Hash algorithm IDIt is formatted as follows.
Files that are not digitally signed will use an MD5 hash. Example: The following hash rule matches a file with a length of 1. MD5 (denoted by the hash algorithm identifier of 3.
Certificate Rules. A certificate rule specifies a code- signing, software publisher certificate. For example, a company can require that all scripts and Active. X controls be signed with a particular set of publisher certificates. Certificates used in a certificate rule can be issued from a commercial certificate authority (CA) such as Veri.
Sign, a Windows 2. Windows Server 2. PKI, or a self- signed certificate. A certificate rule is a strong way to identify software because it uses signed hashes contained in the signature of the signed file to match files regardless of name or location. If you wish to make exceptions to a certificate rule, you can use a hash rule to identify the exceptions.
Path Rules. A path rule can specify a folder or fully qualified path to a program. When a path rule specifies a folder, it matches any program contained in that folder and any programs contained in subfolders. Both local and UNC paths are supported. Using Environment Variables in Path Rules. A path rule can use environment variables.
Since path rules are evaluated in the client environment, the ability to use environment variables (for example, %WINDIR%) allows a rule to adapt to a particular user's environment. Important: Environment variables are not protected by access control lists (ACL). If users can start a command prompt they can redefine an environment variable to a path of their choosing.
Using Wildcards in Path Rules. A path rule can incorporate the '?' and '*' wildcards, allowing rules such as . Some examples. Many applications store paths to their installation folders or application directories in the Windows registry. You can create a path rule that looks up these registry keys. For example, some applications can be installed anywhere on the file system. These locations may not be easily identifiable by using specific folder paths, such as C: \Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK, or environment variables, such as %Program.
Files%\Microsoft Platform SDK.